Tsao Foundation's annual report on 2016 is here. Thank you to all partners and friends for another successful year of enabling opportunities in health, welbeing and fulfilment in our society of longer lives.
CHERRY, K. E., BRIGMAN, S., LYON, B. A., BLANCHARD, B., WALKER, E. J., & SMITHERMAN, E. A. (2016). SELF-REPORTED AGEISM ACROSS THE LIFESPAN ROLE OF AGING KNOWLEDGE. THE INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF AGING AND HUMAN DEVELOPMENT, 0091415016657562. http://doi.org/10.1177/0091415016657562
The authors examined the prevalence of self-reported ageist behaviors in a lifespan sample ranging in age from 13 to 91 years. Participants completed the Relating to Older People Evaluation (Cherry & Palmore). Results indicated that adolescents and young adults reported fewer ageist behaviors overall than did middle-aged and older adults. Positive ageist behaviors were more frequent than negative ageist behaviors for people of all ages. Women endorsed positive ageism items more often than men, although men and women did not differ in frequency of negative ageist behaviors. Follow-up analyses on participants’ responses to two knowledge of aging measures, the Facts on Aging Quiz and the Knowledge of Memory Aging Questionnaire, showed that knowledge of aging was significantly correlated with negative ageist behaviors, after controlling for age and gender. Implications of these findings for current views of ageism (positive and negative) are discussed.
MARTIN, R., WILLIAMS, C., & O’NEILL, D. (2009). RETROSPECTIVE ANALYSIS OF ATTITUDES TO AGEING IN THE ECONOMIST: APOCALYPTIC DEMOGRAPHY FOR OPINION FORMERS. BMJ, 339, b4914. http://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.b4914
Objective To investigate the description of older people and ageing in a major weekly newspaper, influential in political and financial circles, to see whether it reflected ageing in a balanced manner, and to what extent it indulged in apocalyptic demography—the portrayal of population ageing as a financial burden rather than a scientific advance. Design Electronic search of the digital archive of the Economist of articles published between January 1997 and April 2008. Main outcomes measures Categorisation of articles as portraying population ageing as a burden or a benefit or with a balanced view. Results Of 6306 identified articles, 262 were relevant. Most featured pensions, demography, and politics. Of these 262, 64% portrayed population ageing as a burden and 12% as a benefit; 24% had a balanced view. Most articles therefore showed a predominantly ageist view of older people as a burden on society, often portraying them as frail non-contributors. Recurrent themes included pension and demographic ‘time bombs’ and future unsustainable costs of health care for older people. Conclusion This negative view of older people might be influential in shaping the attitudes of readers, who include opinion formers in political and economic circles. Gerontologists (including geriatricians) need to engage with influential media, as well as helping to promote a professional development of journalists that is informed and knowledgeable about the negative impact of ageism on the wellbeing of older people.
NORTH, M. S., & FISKE, S. T. (2015). MODERN ATTITUDES TOWARD OLDER ADULTS IN THE AGING WORLD: A CROSS-CULTURAL META-ANALYSIS. PSYCHOLOGICAL BULLETIN, 141(5), 993–1021. http://doi.org/10.1037/a0039469
POSTHUMA, R. A., & CAMPION, M. A. (2009). AGE STEREOTYPES IN THE WORKPLACE: COMMON STEREOTYPES, MODERATORS, AND FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS†. JOURNAL OF MANAGEMENT, 35(1), 158–188. http://doi.org/10.1177/0149206308318617
The authors identify, analyze, and summarize prior research from 117 research articles and books that deal with age stereotypes in the workplace. They discover and report the most prevalent and well-supported findings that have implications for human resource management. These findings are described in terms of prevalent age stereotypes that occur in work settings, evidence refuting age stereotypes, and moderators of age stereotypes. The authors provide recommendations for practice and future research.
VAUCLAIR, C.-M., HANKE, K., HUANG, L.-L., & ABRAMS, D. (2016). ARE ASIAN CULTURES REALLY LESS AGEIST THAN WESTERN ONES? IT DEPENDS ON THE QUESTIONS ASKED. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGY, n/a–n/a. http://doi.org/10.1002/ijop.12292
Ageism is an increasing concern in ageing populations such as Asia and Europe. A prevalent assumption in psychology is that Eastern cultures may be less prone to ageism because of norms and values that honour and respect elders. Yet, evidence for this culture hypothesis is inconclusive. The current study examines this issue by comparing attitudes towards older people in an Eastern and Western samples of 184 young people from the UK and 249 from Taiwan. Attitudes to old age were measured both as meta-perceptions (the perceived normative context) and personal attitudes in regard to the cognitive, affective and behavioural components of ageism. Consistent with the culture hypothesis, meta-perceptions about competence and admiration were more positive in Taiwan than in the UK, yet other meta-perceptions were more negative pointing to the existence of old age subtypes. Personal attitudes about older people in regard to the affective and behavioural, but not the cognitive component, were more negative in Taiwan than in the UK. Thus, cultural differences in ageism are more nuanced than suggested by previous research. The importance of distinguishing between the normative context and personal attitudes as well as the different components of ageism is highlighted by the present findings.
CHAM, G. W., & SEOW, E. (2000). THE PATTERN OF ELDERLY ABUSE PRESENTING TO AN EMERGENCY DEPARTMENT. SINGAPORE MEDICAL JOURNAL, 41(12), 571–574.
AIM: To determine the pattern and frequency of elder abuse presenting to an urban Emergency unit in Singapore. METHOD: The survey was conducted from May 1994 to December 1997. The patients consisted of adults who were 65 years or older who presented to the Emergency Department with non-accidental trauma or complained of other acts of cruelty. RESULT: 17 cases of elder abuse were found, out of a total of 62,826 elderly patients. The frequency of elder abuse presenting to the Emergency Department was 0.03%. Elder abuse makes up 2.9% of all cases of family violence involving adults in this period. The average age was 74.6 years old. There was a predominance of Chinese females. In 58.8% the assailants were the daughter-in-law or son. 70.5% were ambulatory. Most (76.4%) had a chronic medical illness, commonly hypertension, diabetes mellitus, or both. Blunt musculoskeletal trauma, head or maxillofacial injuries were the commonest injuries encountered. CONCLUSION: Elder abuse is a significant subset of Family Violence. It may be more widespread than thought. Awareness of its occurrence is a first step in halting its progression.
CHAN, W.-C. (2011). VICTIMS OF ELDER ABUSE IN SINGAPORE. SINGAPORE’S AGEING POPULATION: MANAGING HEALTHCARE AND END-OF-LIFE DECISIONS, 34, 83.
COOPER, C., SELWOOD, A., & LIVINGSTON, G. (2008). THE PREVALENCE OF ELDER ABUSE AND NEGLECT: A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW. AGE AND AGEING, 37(2), 151–160. http://doi.org/10.1093/ageing/afm194
Objective: to perform a systematic review of studies measuring the prevalence of elder abuse or neglect, either reported by older people themselves, or family and professional caregivers or investigated using objective measures. Methods: we conducted a comprehensive literature search of multiple databases up to October 2006, supplemented by a search of the references of all relevant articles. Validity of studies was graded by two authors independently using a standardised checklist. Results: forty-nine studies met our inclusion criteria, of which only seven used measures for which reliability and validity had been assessed. In the general population studies, 6% of older people reported significant abuse in the last month and 5.6% of couples reported physical violence in their relationship in the last year. In studies using valid instruments involving vulnerable elders, nearly a quarter reported significant levels of psychological abuse. Five per cent of family caregivers reported physical abuse towards care recipients with dementia in a year, and a third reported any significant abuse. Sixteen per cent of care home staff admitted significant psychological abuse. Rates of abuse recorded using objective measures (5%) or reported to home management or adult protective services (APS) (1–2%) were low. Conclusion: one in four vulnerable elders are at risk of abuse and only a small proportion of this is currently detected. Elders and family and professional caregivers are willing to report abuse and should be asked about it routinely. Valid, reliable measures and consensus on what constitutes an adequate standard for validity of abuse measures are needed.
FS, K., & BE, P. B. (2003). WHY ELDER ABUSE CONTINUES TO ELUDE THE HEALTH CARE SYSTEM. THE MOUNT SINAI JOURNAL OF MEDICINE, NEW YORK, 70(1), 62–68.
Abstract: Elderly men and women of all socioeconomic and ethnic backgrounds are vulnerable to mistreatment, and most often it goes undetected.
PHUA, D. H., NG, T. W., & SEOW, E. (2008). EPIDEMIOLOGY OF SUSPECTED ELDERLY MISTREATMENT IN SINGAPORE. SINGAPORE MEDICAL JOURNAL, 49(10), 765–773.
Abstract: INTRODUCTION: In our Asian society, respect for our elderly is deeply entrenched and highly valued. However, a previous study had shown that...
PLOEG, J., FEAR, J., HUTCHISON, B., MACMILLAN, H., & BOLAN, G. (2009). A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW OF INTERVENTIONS FOR ELDER ABUSE. JOURNAL OF ELDER ABUSE & NEGLECT, 21(3), 187–210. http://doi.org/10.1080/08946560902997181
The purpose of this study was to use rigorous systematic review methods to summarize the effectiveness of interventions for elder abuse. Only eight studies met our inclusion criteria. Evidence regarding the recurrence of abuse following intervention was limited, but the interventions for which this outcome was reported failed to reduce, and may have even increased, the likelihood of recurrence. Elder abuse interventions had no significant effect on case resolution and at-risk caregiver outcomes, and had mixed results regarding professional knowledge and behavior related to elder abuse. The included studies had important methodological limitations that limit our ability to draw conclusions about the effectiveness of these interventions.
YAN, E., CHAN, K.-L., & TIWARI, A. (2015). A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW OF PREVALENCE AND RISK FACTORS FOR ELDER ABUSE IN ASIA. TRAUMA, VIOLENCE, & ABUSE, 16(2), 199–219. http://doi.org/10.1177/1524838014555033
The number of older victims of domestic violence is expected to increase drastically in Asia as many countries are experiencing rapid population aging. In 2012, 11% of the population in Asia were aged 60 years and over. This is expected to rise to 24% by 2050. This article discusses the unique features of Asian cultures that are relevant to the understanding of elder abuse and summarizes the existing literature looking at the prevalence and risk factors of such abuse in Asian populations.